Causes of low productivity in India: Though traditionally strike, lock out, go slow, work to rule, lack of skill etc are considered to be major reason of low productivity in our country there are several other external factors which are also responsible for the low productivity of the Indian industrial workers. These factors are: climatic condition, migratory nature of labour force, low wages and poor standard of living, poor working condition, poor housing, indebtedness of workers, obsolete machinery and equipments etc .
So it will be unjustified to solely blame the Indian industrial workers for low productivity without considering all the contributing factors responsible for low productivity. As suggested in the Maslow’s triangle if the workers are to be busy only for satisfying their physiological need and hunger there is every likely hood that his productivity and efficiency will be very low.
Trade Union, Labour Laws and Productivity: Trade unions now a days plays a vital role for harmonious industrial relation so that workers are not exploited by employers and at the same time workers produce more for the growth and prosperity of the organization. Good and harmonious relation between trade union and management is must for higher productivity or imparting any technological change. The labourers have more and more conscious of their rights and regarding settlement of disputes they listen more to the version of unions than to the version of management. All its members accept any agreement made with the union. Hence the role of union is very important for increasing production and productivity.
Traditionally, labour laws in India had a protective function consisting of established standards both to protect workers in their workplace and to provide them a basic minimum level of living condition. However along with the change of time it has become a necessity that to remain competitive in the market and survive in fierce competition the traditional protective function of labour laws has become a hindrance. In the changed scenario the labour laws should be interpreted for benefit of workers as well as management and it should be of promotional for the benefit of both the parties. Labour laws should be suitably amended to suit the need of globalize scenario and integration of world economies. Productivity is must for survival and growth of Indian industries but at the same time labour welfare is to be taken care. In India there are about 108 labour laws for the protection and welfare of labours. Various courts interpret these laws in various ways creating confusion and delay in justice and also affecting productivity. The
number of labour laws should be reduced and only few comprehensive labour laws should cover all matter relating to labours for quick disposal of dispute and better industrial relation for increasing productivity.
Industrial Democracy and Productivity: It is a globally accepted fact that workers are the prime factor for productivity and machine alone can’t increase productivity. The modern concept is therefore that productivity and efficiency can only be enhanced through industrial democracy and workers participation. The purpose of industrial democracy is to give the workers a sense of belongingness to the organization and a sense of commitment to various decisions taken. In its absence they will consider themselves to be just employees, having no commitment to the objectives or the policies, plans and programs of the organization and no responsibilities for any thing that goes wrong in relation to them in the organization.
Three conditions are necessary for successful functioning of industrial democracy:
Conclusion: To make Indian industries globally competitive, productivity and efficiency are the key words. India can’t become a self-dependent developed country through economic liberalization alone, but through productivity, efficiency and world class quality. Productivity and efficiency can be achieved only through attitudinal change of workers and imparting a work culture, workers participation and industrial democracy.